The neutral molecules formed by the combination of the acetate ion and a positive ion called a cation are also commonly called "acetates" hence, acetate of leadacetate of aluminumetc. Most of the approximately 5 billion kilograms of acetic acid produced annually in industry are used in the production of acetates, which usually take the form of polymers.
In nature, acetate is the most common building block for biosynthesis. For example, the fatty acids are produced by connecting the two carbon atoms from acetate to a growing fatty acid. Care should also be taken to avoid confusion with peracetic acid when using the OAc abbreviation; for clarity and to avoid errors when translated, HOAc should be avoided in literature mentioning both compounds.
It is the conjugate base of acetic acid. Above a pH of 5. Many acetate salts are ionic, indicated by their tendency to dissolve well in water. A commonly encountered acetate in the home is sodium acetatea white solid that can be prepared by combining vinegar and sodium bicarbonate "bicarbonate of soda" :. Transition metals can be complexed by acetate. Examples of acetate complexes include chromium II acetate and basic zinc acetate.
Commercially important acetate salts are aluminium acetateused in dyeingammonium acetatea precursor to acetamideand potassium acetateused as a diuretic. All three salts are colourless and highly soluble in water. The esters are the dominant forms of acetate in the marketplace. Unlike the acetate salts, acetate esters are often liquids, lipophilic, and sometimes volatile.
They are popular because they have inoffensive, often sweet odors, they are inexpensive, and they are usually of low toxicity. Almost half of acetic acid production is consumed in the production of vinyl acetateprecursor to polyvinyl alcoholwhich is a component of many paints.
The second largest use of acetic acid is consumed in the production of cellulose acetate. In fact, "acetate" is jargon for cellulose acetate, which is used in the production of fibres or diverse products, e.
Cellulose acetate can be found in many household products. Many industrial solvents are acetates, including methyl acetateethyl acetate, isopropyl acetateethylhexyl acetate. Butyl acetate is a fragrance used in food products. Acetate is a common anion in biology. It is mainly utilized by organisms in the form of acetyl coenzyme A. Increased serum acetate levels lead to accumulation of adenosine in many tissues including the brain, and administration of the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine to rats after ethanol was found to decrease nociceptive behavior.
Pyruvate is converted into acetyl-coenzyme A acetyl-CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. This acetyl-CoA is then converted into acetate in E. Acetate formation requires two enzymes: phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase.
Acetic acid can also undergo a dismutation reaction to produce methane and carbon dioxide :  . This disproportionation reaction is catalysed by methanogen archaea in their fermentative metabolism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.In organic chemistryacetyl is a moietythe acyl with chemical formula CH 3 CO. It is sometimes represented by the symbol Ac  not to be confused with the element actinium.
The acetyl group contains a methyl group single-bonded to a carbonyl. The carbonyl center of an acyl radical has one nonbonded electron with which it forms a chemical bond to the remainder R of the molecule. The acetyl moiety is a component of many organic compoundsincluding acetic acidthe neurotransmitter acetylcholineacetyl-CoAacetylcysteineacetaminophen also known as paracetamoland acetylsalicylic acid better known as aspirin.
The introduction of an acetyl group into a molecule is called acetylation. In biological organisms, acetyl groups are commonly transferred from acetyl-CoA to other organic molecules. Acetyl-CoA is an intermediate both in the biological synthetase and in the breakdown of many organic molecules.
Acetyl-CoA is also created during the second stage of cellular respiration, the Krebs Cycleby the action of pyruvate dehydrogenase on pyruvic acid. Histones and other proteins are often modified by acetylation. For example, on the DNA level, histone acetylation by acetyltransferases HATs causes an expansion of chromatin architecture, allowing for genetic transcription to occur.
Acetylation can be achieved using a variety of methods, the most common one being via the use of acetic anhydride or acetyl chlorideoften in the presence of a tertiary or aromatic amine base.
A typical acetylation is the conversion of glycine to N -acetylglycine : . Acetylated organic molecules exhibit increased ability to cross the selectively permeable blood—brain barrier. In similar manner, acetylation converts the natural painkiller morphine into the far more potent heroin diacetylmorphine.
There is some evidence that acetyl-L-carnitine may be more effective for some applications than L-carnitine.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Acetyl. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Not to be confused with Acetal. Acetyl preferred to ethanoyl   . CAS Number.
Acetate Definition in Chemistry
Interactive image. Beilstein Reference. Gmelin Reference. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. In Favre, Henri A. Chemical Entities of Biological Interest.
UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. Functional group chemistry. Cambridge, Eng: Royal Society of Chemistry.The acetate anion is commonly abbreviated as OAc in formulas. The acetate ester group connects a functional group to the last oxygen atom of the acetate anion. When the negatively-charged acetate anion combines with a positively charged cationthe resulting compound is called an acetate.
The simplest of these compounds is hydrogen acetate, which is commonly called acetic acid. Other important acetates are acetate of lead or sugar of leadchromium II acetate, and aluminum acetate.
Most transition metal acetates are colorless salts that are highly soluble in water. At one time, lead acetate was used as a toxic sweetener. Aluminum acetate is used in dyeing. Potassium acetate is a diuretic. Most acetic acid produced by the chemical industry is used to prepare acetates.
Acetates, in turn, are primarily used to make polymers. Nearly half of acetic acid production goes to preparing vinyl acetate, which is used to make polyvinyl alcohol, an ingredient in paint.
Another fraction of acetic acid is used to make cellulose acetate, which is used to make fibers for the textile industry and acetate discs in the audio industry. In biology, acetates occur naturally for use in biosynthesis of more complex organic molecules. For example, bonding two carbons from acetate to a fatty acid produces a more complex hydrocarbon.
Because acetate salts are ionic, they tend to dissolve well in water. One of the easiest forms of acetate to prepare at home is sodium acetatewhich is also known as "hot ice.
While acetate salts are typically white, soluble powders, acetate esters are typically available as lipophilic, often volatile liquids.
Acetate esters are typically inexpensive, display low toxicity, and often have a sweet odor. In this reaction, a single electron is transferred from the carbonyl of the carboxylic group to the methyl group, releasing methane gas and carbon dioxide gas.
In animals, acetate is most commonly used in the form acetyl coenzyme A. Acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl CoA is important for lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism.
It delivers the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle for oxidation, which leads to energy production. Acetate is believe to cause or at least contribute to hangovers from alcohol consumption. When alcohol is metabolized in mammals, increased levels of serum acetate lead to adenosine accumulation in the brain and other tissues. In rats, caffeine has been shown to reduce nociceptive behavior in response to adenosine. So, while drinking coffee after consuming alcohol may not increase sobriety of a person or ratit may reduce the likelihood of getting a hangover.
Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph.Cellulose acetatesynthetic compound derived from the acetylation of the plant substance cellulose.
Cellulose acetate is spun into textile fibres known variously as acetate rayonacetateor triacetate. It can also be molded into solid plastic parts such as tool handles or cast into film for photography or food wrapping, though its use in these applications has diminished. Cellulose is a naturally occurring polymer obtained from wood fibres or the short fibres linters adhering to cotton seeds.
It is made up of repeating glucose units that have the chemical formula C 6 H 7 O 2 OH 3 and the following molecular structure:. In unaltered cellulose, the X in the molecular structure represents hydrogen Hindicating the presence in the molecule of three hydroxyl OH groups. The OH groups form strong hydrogen bonds between cellulose molecules, with the result that cellulose structures cannot be loosened by heat or solvents without causing chemical decomposition.
However, upon acetylation, the hydrogen in the hydroxyl groups is replaced by acetyl groups CH 3 -CO. The resultant cellulose acetate compound can be dissolved in certain solvents or softened or melted under heat, allowing the material to be spun into fibres, molded into solid objects, or cast as a film.
Cellulose acetate is most commonly prepared by treating cellulose with acetic acid and then with acetic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst such as sulfuric acid. When the resultant reactions are allowed to proceed to completion, the product is a fully acetylated compound known as primary cellulose acetate, or, more properly, cellulose triacetate.
From solution, triacetate can be dry-spun into fibres or, with the aid of plasticizers, cast as a film. If the primary acetate is treated with water, a hydrolization reaction can occur in which the acetylation reaction is partially reversed, producing a secondary cellulose acetate, or cellulose diacetate.
Diacetate can be dissolved by cheaper solvents such as acetone for dry-spinning into fibres. Cellulose acetate was developed in the late 19th century as part of an effort to design industrially produced fibres based on cellulose. Treatment of cellulose with nitric acid had produced cellulose nitrate also known as nitrocellulosebut the difficulties of working with this highly flammable compound encouraged research in other areas.
Cross and Edward J. Bevan, working in England, patented a process for preparing chloroform-soluble cellulose triacetate. An important commercial contribution was made by British chemist George Miles in —05 with the discovery that, when the fully acetylated cellulose was subjected to hydrolysisit transformed into a less highly acetylated compound cellulose diacetate that was soluble in cheap organic solvents such as acetone. The full exploitation on a commercial scale of the acetone-soluble material was accomplished by two Swiss brothers, Henri and Camille Dreyfuswho during World War I built a factory in England for the production of cellulose diacetate to be used as a nonflammable dope for the coating of fabric airplane wings.
After the war, faced with no further demand for acetate dope, the Dreyfus brothers turned to the production of diacetate fibres, and in their company, British Celanese Ltd. In E. Acetate fabrics found wide favour for their softness and graceful drape. The material does not wrinkle easily when worn and, because of its low moisture absorption when properly treated, does not easily retain certain types of stains.
Acetate garments launder well, retaining their original size and shape and drying in a short time, though they have a tendency to retain creases imparted when wet.
The fibre has been used, alone or in blends, in apparel such as dresses, sportswear, underwear, shirts, and ties and also in carpets and other home furnishings. In the British firm Courtaulds Ltd. Courtaulds and British Celanese marketed a triacetate fibre under the trademark Tricel. In the United States triacetate was introduced under the trademarked name Arnel. Triacetate fabrics became known for their superior shape retention, resistance to shrinking, and ease of washing and drying.
Production of acetate fibres has declined since the midth century partly because of competition from polyester fibres, which have the same or better wash-and-wear properties, can be ironed at higher temperatures, and are less expensive. Nevertheless, acetate fibres are still used in easy-care garments and for the inner linings of clothing because of their high sheen.
Cellulose diacetate tow bundles of fibre has become the principal material for cigarette filters. The first commercial use of cellulose diacetate as a plastic was in so-called safety filmfirst proposed as a replacement for celluloid in photography soon after the beginning of the 20th century.
The material was given further impetus in the s by the introduction of injection molding, a rapid and efficient forming technique to which acetate was particularly amenable but to which celluloid could not be subjected, because of the high temperatures involved.
Cellulose acetate became widely used in the automotive industry because of its mechanical strength, toughness, wear resistance, transparency, and ease of moldability. Its high resistance to impact made it a desirable material for protective goggles, tool handles, oil gauges, and the like. In the s cellulose triacetate replaced diacetate in photographic film, becoming the preeminent base for motion pictures, still photography, and X-rays.Generic Name: Ganirelix acetate Dosage Form: injection, solution.
Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Nov 1, Ganirelix acetate injection is a synthetic decapeptide with high antagonistic activity against naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH. The molecular weight for Ganirelix acetate is The structural formula is as follows: Ganirelix Acetate. The frequency of LH pulses in the mid and late follicular phase is approximately 1 pulse per hour.
These pulses can be detected as transient rises in serum LH. The midcycle LH surge initiates several physiologic actions including: ovulation, resumption of meiosis in the oocyte, and luteinization. Luteinization results in a rise in serum progesterone with an accompanying decrease in estradiol levels.
Ganirelix acetate acts by competitively blocking the GnRH receptors on the pituitary gonadotroph and subsequent transduction pathway. It induces a rapid, reversible suppression of gonadotropin secretion. An initial release of endogenous gonadotropins has not been detected with Ganirelix acetate, which is consistent with an antagonist effect. The pharmacokinetic parameters of single and multiple injections of Ganirelix acetate injection in healthy adult females are summarized in Table I.
Steady-state serum concentrations are reached after 3 days of treatment. The pharmacokinetics of Ganirelix acetate are dose-proportional in the dose range of mcg to mcg.
Ganirelix acetate is rapidly absorbed following subcutaneous injection with maximum serum concentrations reached approximately one hour after dosing.
The mean absolute bioavailability of Ganirelix acetate following a single mcg subcutaneous injection to healthy female volunteers is The mean SD volume of distribution of Ganirelix acetate in healthy females following intravenous administration of a single mcg dose is In vitro protein binding to human plasma is Ganirelix acetate is not found in the feces.A record would spend years in larval form as an acetatethe big waxy master from which copies were made.
Acetate of oxide of ethyl, Acetic ether, Pyroligneous ether; ther aceticus, L. Can we then use "red liquor" acetate of aluminaacetate of iron, copperas, etc.? From nickelous carbonate and hydrochloric acid, as the acetate. The mordant for a full red may be acetate of alumina, of spec. Also called acetate rayon. An everyday activity is one you do every day. Thanks, English. Practice using "everyday," one word, and "every day," two words, in this fun quiz with … everyday example sentences!
Words nearby acetate acetaldolacetamideacetaminophenacetanilideacetanisidineacetateacetate rayonacetate-coa ligaseacetazolamideaceticacetic acid. Example sentences from the Web for acetate A record would spend years in larval form as an acetatethe big waxy master from which copies were made. Derived forms of acetate acetatedadjective. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. A salt or ester of acetic acid.
Esters contain another radical, such as ethyl, attached to the acetic acid radical. Cellulose acetate or a product made from it, especially fibers or film. All rights reserved.In chemistryan ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid organic or inorganic in which at least one —OH hydroxyl group is replaced by an —O— alkyl alkoxy group.
Glycerideswhich are fatty acid esters of glycerolare important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipidsand making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils.
Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA molecules. Nitrate esterssuch as nitroglycerinare known for their explosive properties, while polyesters are important plasticswith monomers linked by ester moieties.Chemical Tests for Acetate - MeitY OLabs
Esters usually have a sweet smell and are considered high-quality solvents for a broad array of plastics, plasticizersresinsand lacquers. Ester names are derived from the parent alcohol and the parent acid, where the latter may be organic or inorganic.
Esters derived from the simplest carboxylic acids are commonly named according to the more traditional, so-called " trivial names " e. Esters derived from more complex carboxylic acids are, on the other hand, more frequently named using the systematic IUPAC name, based on the name for the acid followed by the suffix -oate. For example, butyl acetate systematically butyl ethanoatederived from butanol and acetic acid systematically ethanoic acid would be written CH 3 CO 2 C 4 H 9.
Cyclic esters are called lactonesregardless of whether they are derived from an organic or an inorganic acid. Esters can also be derived from an inorganic acid and an alcohol. For example, triphenyl phosphate is the ester derived from phosphoric acid and phenol. Organic carbonates are derived from carbonic acid ; for example, ethylene carbonate is derived from carbonic acid and ethylene glycol. So far an alcohol and inorganic acid are linked via oxygen atoms.
The definition of inorganic acid ester that feature inorganic chemical elements links between alcohols and the inorganic acid — the phosphorus atom linking to three alkoxy functional groups in organophosphate — can be extended to the same elements in various combinations of covalent bonds between carbons and the central inorganic atom and carbon—oxygen bonds to central inorganic atoms.
For example, phosphorus features three carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bonds and one phosphorus—oxygen double bond in organophosphates, three carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bonds and no phosphorus—oxygen double bonds in phosphite esters or organophosphites, two carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bonds, no phosphorus—oxygen double bonds but one phosphorus—carbon bond in phosphonites, one carbon—oxygen—phosphorus bonds, no phosphorus—oxygen double bonds but two phosphorus—carbon bonds in phosphinites.
As oxygen is a group 16 chemical element, sulfur atoms can replace some oxygen atoms in carbon—oxygen—central inorganic atom covalent bonds of an ester. As a result, thiosulfinates and thiosulfonateswith a central inorganic sulfur atom, demonstrate clearly the assortment of sulfur esters, that also includes sulfatessulfitessulfonatessulfinatessulfenates esters.
Unlike amidesesters are structurally flexible functional groups because rotation about the C—O—C bonds has a low barrier. Their flexibility and low polarity is manifested in their physical properties; they tend to be less rigid lower melting point and more volatile lower boiling point than the corresponding amides.
Many esters have the potential for conformational isomerismbut they tend to adopt an s -cis or Z conformation rather than the s -trans or E alternative, due to a combination of hyperconjugation and dipole minimization effects.
The preference for the Z conformation is influenced by the nature of the substituents and solvent, if present. E conformation due to their cyclic structure. Esters are more polar than ethers but less polar than alcohols. They participate in hydrogen bonds as hydrogen-bond acceptors, but cannot act as hydrogen-bond donors, unlike their parent alcohols. This ability to participate in hydrogen bonding confers some water-solubility.
Because of their lack of hydrogen-bond-donating ability, esters do not self-associate. Consequently, esters are more volatile than carboxylic acids of similar molecular weight. Esters are generally identified by gas chromatography, taking advantage of their volatility. This peak changes depending on the functional groups attached to the carbonyl. Esters are widespread in nature and are widely used in industry. In nature, fats are in general triesters derived from glycerol and fatty acids.
Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two reactants typically an alcohol and an acid form an ester as the reaction product. Esters are common in organic chemistry and biological materials, and often have a pleasant characteristic, fruity odor.